Treatment varies according to etiology, for example foranal fissure and fistula and hemorrhoids both medical and surgical therapy can be attempted, depending on the cases. Regarding intestinal constipation and hard stool, after a careful examination and if necessary other exams, several diet and lifestyle advises will be given and, if necessary, liquid fiber and laxatives.
When there is a suspect of an intestinal polyp, complete colonoscopy is mandatory, in order to perform biopsy and to exclude malignant disease.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are the so called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Main symptoms are: abdominal pain, frequent bowel movement, bloody stool. They are serious conditions, but with an accurate diagnosis a proper advanced therapy excellent results are achieved. Solitary rectal ulcer is an open sore in the rectum. This disease is still poorly understood but most of the times is due to a chronic injury to the rectal mucosa like rectal prolapse of chronic constipation. Medical therapy is attempted first, then surgery is pursued when the ulcer is not healing.